Gordeev, along with colleagues in the UK have developed another nanowelding method that only requires an electron microscope and turns carbon contaminants into amorphous carbon. The electron beam transforms tiny amounts of carbon-based contaminants into amorphous carbon. The amorphous carbon is similar to diamond. They create any 3D shape by varying the beam and rotating the target. Using this technique, the researchers have already made nano-scalpels 10 nm by 20 nm across and just a few nanometres thick. These scalpels can be used for cutting into living cells.