The light pulses used were in the terahertz (THz) range of the broad electromagnetic spectrum, found between the microwave and infrared range. Scientists send tight bunches of electrons at nearly the speed of light through a magnetic field to produce THz radiation at a trillion cycles per second - the terahertz frequency that gives the light its name and that makes them especially valuable for investigating biological molecules and imaging, ranging from tumor detection to homeland security.
By slamming an electron beam from an accelerator into an aluminum mirror, the researchers produced 100 microjoule (100 megawatt) single-cycle pulses - the highest energy ever achieved to date with THz radiation. For comparison, 100 megawatts is about the output of a utility company's electrical generator.
Using this strong light, researchers can "kick" molecular processes such as catalysis or electronic switching (important for developing data storage media) into action and watch their mechanisms on a very short timescale.
The team also found something surprising: the intensity of their THz pulses is so great that they introduce so-called "nonlinear optical effects," specifically, a phenomenon known as cross-phase modulation.
"When you pull on a spring, if you pull twice as hard, it stretches twice as much," said NSLS researcher Larry Carr. "But there's a limit where if you pull twice as hard, the spring doesn't move anymore. That's when it's called nonlinear. The same thing happens in materials. You let these short pulses pass through a material, and they stress it and pull some of the charges apart so they don't act in a linear manner."
As a result, the researchers can manipulate both the ultra-fast THz pulses and the material they interact with. Some of the simplest examples include changing the color of the light or turning the material into a focusing lens.
This is the first time cross-phase modulation has been observed in single-cycle THz pulses. Learning how to control this characteristic could lead to even more light source technologies.
I had a previous article about extreme temperature and light being used to control the quantum world of matter