$16 billion in taxes on oil to be used for billions in tax breaks and incentives for renewables This would be a good thing if it passes into law.
A long pdf with the text of the bill
A long pdf with the text of the bill
Benson's plan links technology already being developed. Bigelow Spacehab modules would be prepositioned between Earth and Moon. A crew would shuttle from Earth in the orbital version of Benson's Dreamchaser. Upon reaching lunar orbit, 4 astronauts would descend to the Moon in Lunar Human Access (ALOHA) chairs. What a ride that would be! These open vehicles would be much simpler than the Lunar Surface Access Module NASA is designing. The crew would stay in Spacehab modules already landed on the Moon.
The ram accelerator is a chemically powered hypervelocity mass driver that operates with intube propulsive cycles similar to airbreathing ramjets and scramjets. The launcher consists of a long tube filled with a pressurized gaseous fuel-oxidizer mixture in which a subcaliber projectile having the shape similar to that of a ramjet centerbody is accelerated. No propellants for this launch process are carried aboard the projectile; it effectively flies through its own propellant “tank”. The ram accelerator at the University of Washington has been operated at velocities up to nearly 3 km/s and in-tube Mach numbers greater than 7 in methane-based propellant mixtures. This Mach number capability corresponds to muzzle velocities greater than 7 km/s when using fuel-rich hydrogen-oxygen propellant. The combination of hypervelocity muzzle velocities and the ram accelerator’s inherent scalability to multi-ton payload sizes makes it suitable for direct space launch.
Although it resembles a conventional long-barreled cannon, the principle of operation of the ram accelerator is notably different, being closely related to that of a supersonic airbreathing ramjet engine.
The total propellant mass used per ram accelerator launch to 8 km/s is ~20 times the mass of the projectile; e.g., ~40 metric Tons for a 2000 kg projectile.
A cost estimate of a baseline ram accelerator launcher system having a 500-mm-bore and length of 800 m that is capable of launching a 300 kg projectile at 6 km/s. The upper cost boundary for a ram accelerator launch facility is represented by the
SHARP/JVL light gas gun effort. Public data on SHARP is scant; nonetheless, a published estimate for a proposed 1520-meter-long JVL light gas gun cited a cost of $298M (Gilreath et al. 1998, 1999). The basis for this number comes from an estimate provided by Morrison-Knudsen, the company that built the Alaskan Pipeline. Proportioning this cost to an 800-meter-long ram accelerator launch tube results in an estimate of $157M. It can be argued, however, that the ram accelerator facility cost will be significantly lower than that of a light gas gun because it is
inherently a much simpler device.
The $16M per 800 m of Alaskan Pipeline is considered the lower bound of scaling the ram accelerator launch system cost. The only firm conclusion that we can reach is
that the true system cost is somewhere between $16M and $157M; however, this number is likely closer to the lower bound due to the vastly lower system complexity of ram accelerator compared to the SHARP/JVL light gas gun. The authors propose that a system cost in the range of $40 to $50M dollars is not unreasonable.
Inflatable space structures and Mylar backed solar arrays can survive the high-g (2000g) launch.
The launch ring would be very similar to the particle accelerators used for physics experiments, with superconducting magnets placed around a 2-kilometre-wide ring. The cost per pound to orbit is about $6,000 for the space shuttle; it is estimated that if the Launch Ring is used 300 times per year, the cost would be about $745 per pound. If the launch rate reached 3000 launches per year, they calculate that would drop to $189 per kilogram.
Kessels' software dynamically switches the dynamo, which charges the car battery, on and off. However, the software is not quite ready for release. "We don't yet know how much it might degrade the battery". A more significant fuel saving of 5% to 6% could be achieved if the car engine itself were to be rapidly switched on and off, but this would mean serious adjustments to the engine, including the addition of a powerful starter motor to ensure the car gets going quickly after each engine shutdown.
One of the best ways to optimize mileage (both hybrid and non-hybrid) is to keep up with vehicle maintenance. Key parameters to maintain are tire pressure, tire balance, and proper motor oil weight and level. Inflating tires to the maximum recommended air pressure ensures that less energy is required to move it. Under-inflated tires can lower gas mileage by 0.4 percent for every 1 psi drop in pressure of all four tires per gas tank.
Beyond purchasing smaller vehicles, drivers can also increase fuel economy by minimizing the amount of luggage, tools, and equipment carried in the car, including such things as unneeded snow chains in the summer and outdoor sporting equipment in the winter.
Pulse and glide
This method is a trick that can be used with some hybrids to minimize internal combustion engine waste. The idea is to optimize acceleration in order to reach the optimal threshold of the hybrid engine. At this point, some vehicles (when the accelerator is minimally pressed) will glide consuming almost no power from gas or electric motors.
Speed and acceleration
Maintaining an efficient speed is also very effective in keeping mileage up. Optimal efficiency can be expected while cruising with no stops, at minimal throttle and with the transmission in the highest gear. For most cars these conditions are satisfied at a speed of approximately 35 miles per hour although, this is below the minimum permitted on most roads that have no stops. Therefore, maximum efficiency is obtained while driving the minimum legal speed on a freeway. When accelerating, the engine should be kept in the peak of the torque curve, this is usually at around 75% throttle. A slow acceleration is less efficient. Brakes are designed to dissipate energy and should be avoided whenever possible.
The efficiency of a gasoline engine is related to the fuel's octane level. Differences in cleaning agents between brands of fuel and between loads of unbranded fuel can also have a noticeable impact. Drivers may also weigh the fuel efficiency of multiple fuels for flexfuel vehicles and diesel vehicles, as the use of biofuel can result in marked changes in fuel economy in the same engine.
Test #1 Aggressive Driving vs. Moderate Driving.
Result: Major savings potential
The Cold Hard Facts: Up to 37 percent savings, average savings of 31 percent
Recommendation: Stop driving like a maniac.
Test #2 Lower Speeds Saves Gas
Result: Substantial savings on a long trip
Cold Hard Facts: Up to 14 percent savings, average savings of 12 percent
Recommendation: Drive the speed limit.
Test #3 Use Cruise Control
Result: Surprisingly effective way to save gas
Cold Hard Facts: Up to 14-percent savings, average savings of 7 percent
Recommendation: If you've got it, use it.
Test #6 Avoid Excessive Idling
Result: More important than we assumed
Cold Hard Facts: Avoiding excessive idling can save up to 19 percent
Recommendation: Stopping longer than a minute? Shut 'er down
In physics, energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested), ERoEI, or EROI (Energy Return On Investment), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. When the EROEI of a resource is equal to or lower than 1, that energy source becomes an "energy sink", and can no longer be used as a primary source of energy.