IBM document - 2.2, 2-GHz Graphene Integrated Circuit--IBM from the International Electron Device Meeting, due to be held in Washington DC, Dec. 5 to 7.
IBM's paper is set to move that on towards a manufacturable technology based on CMOS-compatible fabrication on 200-mm diameter wafers, according the abstract released by the organizers.
Because all the carbon chemical bonds are used within a perfect graphene sheet it has an inherently inert surface making the fabrication of a dielectric layer above it – to insulate the gate – difficult. IBM's approach has been to invert the usual manufacturing process and define gate structures first on silicon wafers and then transfer graphene layers fabricated using chemical vapor deposition to the silicon. After defining the areas of graphene IBM was able to attach source and drain contacts to the graphene to complete FET structures.
The frequency doubler integrates multiple field effect transistors and radio frequency passives and demonstrated a conversion gain of approximately -25db at an output frequency of 2-GHz, according to data released by the IEDM organizers.
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